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Sunday, August 2, 2009

Fish Morphology




Morphology is the science of studying the form of a foreign organism. The form of this organism from the outside is one of the characteristics that is easily seen and remembered in studying organisms. As for the external form of this organism is a form of body, including the color of the body visible from the outside. Basically, the form of a fish out of the various types of animals and other water from birth to old fish can be fickle, especially in fish and other water animals metamorphosis the adaptation process and experience of the environment (habitat). However, in most of the fish body is relatively fixed, so that even if changes occur, changes in body form is relatively very small.


Body in the form of sentient life, including animals in the water is also closely related with the anatomy, so it's good to see before be an antonym ; first we see the body shape or appearance (morphology) are water animals. Morphology is a form of body (including color) is visible from the outside. Body in the form of sentient life, including animals in the water with the closely related anatomy, so it's good to see before be an antonym first we see the body shape or appearance (morphology) are water animals.
Basically the morphology of each type of animal that still has near his friends similarity-similarity, anatomy and morphology, such as shrimp, crab and lobster almost similar. The same will be found in the different species of fish and in various other types of animals.
Basically, we know different kinds of water animals, the most common of which we know is the fish, shrimp, mollusk, amphibian, and so forth. While the fish is a vertebrate (vertebrata) a cold-blooded, diair live, move and maintain the balance of the body using the fin and the gill to breathe, but in addition there is also use gill fish which has a respirator additional functions with the same " lungs ".

Fish
On the fish and other water animals in general, the body is divided into three parts namely the head, body and tail (Figure 1), but in each type of fish the size of parts of the body are different depending on the type of fish (note the morphology of fish in the Picture 3). The organs found in each section are:
1. Ie the head part of the tip of the mouth to the tip of the front to operculum (gill cover) is back. The organs of the head, among others, this is the mouth, jaw, teeth, mustache, sunken nose, eye, gill, operculum, brain, heart, and in some fish there are additional respiratory equipment, and so forth.
2. Part of that is from the tip of the operculum (gill cover) back to the beginning of the fin base stripe or often known by the term fin rectum. That there are organs in this example is the back fin, pectoral fin, fin stomach, liver, spleen, bile, stomach, intestine, kidney, gonad, bubble pool, and so forth.
3. The tail, which is located between the base of the early dorsal / rectum until the tip of the tail fin behind. Those who have in this example is anus, anus fin, tail fin, and the fish there is a certain scute and finlet, and so forth.
Body form or morphology of fish closely related to the anatomy, so it's good to see before anatominya; first we see the body shape or appearance (morphology) fish. By looking at the morphology of fish we will be able to horde-the group of fish / water animals, or where the system is be a group of fish is known by the term systematical Taxonomy or fish. Thus, the systematical or Taxonomy this is a science that is used to classify fish / animal water or other animals.
On systematical / Taxonomy this, there are three jobs that were usually conducted, ie, identification, classification and evolution of the observation. On the identification and description of the introduction of rigorous and appropriate to a type / species name for the next scientific. so that it can be recognized by experts around the world. Thus, it can be said that at the time we make the identification as well as we do the analysis. After identification of the classification to the next, at this stage is done arranging categories higher feature-set and characteristics so that the classification will eventually be found. With this view, it can be said that the classification is the extent to make a synthesis. The occurrence of species in the research and observations of the factors of evolution, aims to understand the formation of other species that already exist and examine potential changes in the future. To achieve this the study made possible the change occurred at the time of change and examine the condition of stimulus factors and resistor changes. The morphology of fish clearly visible from the outside, among others, is a form of body, mouth, sunken nose, eyes, gill cover, scale, line-side (line laterals / LL), pectoral fin, fin stomach, back fin, rear fin, and fin tail-fin shape of the fin and the body color and / or parts of the agency.

1. The form of fish body
Between one type of the other species with different. Differences in body shape is generally caused by the adaptation to the habitat and way of life. The body forms of fish that were two fish that are
a. Bilateral symmetry that is when the fish cutting with the sagital snippet, then we will get exactly the same results between the left and the right
b. Non bilateral symmetry that is when the fish cutting with the sagital snippet, then we will get different results between the left and the right
a. Bilateral symmetry
View from the body, especially the form of cut athwart have some kind of fish body bilateral symmetry, the forms are:
Flat 1 / compress the fish well with a flat or other wide-body much smaller than the high body and long body, as shown in Figure 4
2 Picak / depress fish the width of the body far more than the high-body (Figure 5)
3 cigars / ie fusiform fish with high body that is almost the same as the width and length of her body several times the size of the high (Figure 6)
4 Snake / sidat the form of a fish or serpent same with ell body (Figure 7)
5 strap / filiform namely the form of fish-like body belt (Figure 8)
6 tapes / taeniform / flattedform fish that form the aft body and thin ribbon-like (Figure 9)
7 arrows / sagittiform the form of a fish that dart-like body (Figure 10)
8 ball / globiform the form of a fish the body same the ball (Figure 11)
Box 9 / ostraciform the fish's body shape resembles a box (Figure 12)

b. Non bilateral symmetry
Fish bilateral symmetry of non-fish among the fish and the tongue


2. Form mouth of Fish
There are several kinds of fish's mouth. The form of the mouth of the fish species of fish with one other species of fish vary depending on the type of food that ate. In general there are four types of fish's mouth are:
1. Such as the form of tubes (tube like)
2. Form as a part (like beak)
3. Form, such as saw (like him)
4. Form such as trumpeter
Mouth and can not emerge
Based on emerge can not, the mouth of the fish are divided into 2, namely:
1. Can emerge (Figure 16)
2. Can not emerge
Position of mouth
Position the mouth of the fish also varied depending on the location of the habitat where food will eaten. There are four types of fish that is the position of the mouth
1. Terminal position, which is located in the mouth, the tip of the nose (Figure 17)
2. Sub-terminal position, which is located near the mouth of the tip of the nose (Figure 18)
3. Superior position, the mouth is located on the nose (Figure 19)
Inferior position, the mouth is located under the nose (Figure 20

3. Form flipper

The form of fin fish on both the back fin, pectoral fin, belly fin, dorsal (anus) and tail fin for a wide range more details can be up to the Figure 3 Figure 20. Of all the fin-fin is a more typical shape and is located on the manifold is a fish tail fin. Basically, there are ten kinds of tail fin (Figure 1-20 and Figure 21), namely:
1. Pole in tail fin like the gold fish (Cyprinus carpio), fish tawes (Puntius javanicus), Bawal fish (Pampus sp), and so forth.
2. Vertical tail fin edges, as in the bloated fish (Tetraodon sp)
3. Vertical tail fin edges, as in the fish pound (Helostoma temmincki)
4. Berlekuk twin tail fin, as in the fish Scatophagus Argus
5. Tail fin rounded shape, as in the Gurami Fish (Osphronemus gouramy)
6. Bajir fin-shaped tail, as in the bloso Fish (Glossogobius sp)
7. Taper-shaped tail fin, the fish such as eel (Monopterus albus)
8. Crescent-shaped tail fin, as in the tuna Fish (Euthynus sp)
9. Episerkal shaped tail fin, in this case the top of the tail is longer than the lower tail as there are fish in the Atlantic Sturgeon (Acipencer oxyrhynchus)
10. Hiposerkal shaped tail fin, in this case the bottom of the tail is longer than the top of the tail as there are fish in Caracas (Tylosurus sp)

4. Linealateralis (LL)
If we note the morphology of fish, we get no such always line dots on the fish, known by the term lineateralis (LL). Linealateralis line is formed by pore-pore, so that LL is located at both the fish and the scaly fish that are not scaly. In the scaly fish, which does not form by LL pore-pore of the skin, whereas in LL scaly fish, which form by a porous shell. In general, fish have one line LL, however adapula fish that LL have some fruit. LL is working to detect area conditions, particularly water quality and also play a role in the process osmoregulasi.
In addition to the above, the fish often have special characteristics, in this case there are fish yan have finlet, KIL scot or with the following definition.
• Finlet is a small fin-fin located behind the back fin and the dorsal (rectum), for example, we will find the mackerel (Rastrelliger sp) (Figure 22)
• Skut sheath is thick at the base of the stomach or tails selar fish (Caranx sp) (Figure 23)
• KIL is rigi-rigi the peak and there is a taper on the stem tail, such as that found in the tuna (Figure 24)
• soft fin (adipose fin) fin is the form of additional layers of fat that is in the back fin or dorsal spine as in the jambal Fish (Ketengus sp) (Figure 25)
5. Meristik features and characteristics Morfometrik
In determining the identification often we make the measurement-measurement and calculation with the known characteristics meristik and morfometrik. As is the meristik characteristic is related to the amount of certain body parts such as the number of fingers and the number of fingers on the fin spine is weak, and so forth. As is the morfometrik characteristic is related to body size as total length, head length, and so forth. The usual size of the fish (Figure 26) is
• The length of the total distance between the front end of the head (usually the front end of the jaw) with the tip of the tail fin is back
• standard length is the distance between the front edge of the bed base of tail fin
• The length of the branch to the base of the tail fin the distance between the tip of the head with the front dent branch tail fin
• Higher body size that is highest between the ventral with dorsal
• Length is the distance between the tip of the head with the front end of the last operkulum
Krustase
Animals economic value of water is important shrimp, crab and lobster is included in the Class Krustase. Krustase comes from the word meaning crusta hard body shell. In this case krustase have eksoskeleton (outside frame) from a hard material kitin. Class Krustase this is the only klas of filum Arthropoda many members who live in the environment, especially in the sea. Class Krustase this is the only class of Filum Arthropoda many members who live in the water environment. The morphology prawns (shrimp body) consists of the head, Toraks and abdomen, but the head and Toraks them together and called the combination of both sefalotoraks; body so that the shrimp only consists of sefalotoraks and abdomen. Sefalotoraks diselaputi by karapas that envelop both the dorsal and laterial. On sefalotoraks there is an antenna and which functions as antenula senses (sensori), compound eyes and a bertangkai can digerakan, mouth, and gill mandibula. In addition, there are also five-foot way as pairs. Foot road is also called pereiopod.
In the abdomen there is a shrimp foot pool that is often referred to plepoid; plepoid this function to swim. And there at the end of the telson and urorod who works for swimming. Telson right under the anus there is a hole that functions to perform ekskresi.


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